Six teeth (three upper incisors and three lower premolars) from the Paleolithic cave of Seliungur, southern Fergana, Uzbekistan, are described and compared with those of ancient and modern members of the genus Homo. Metric and nonmetric traits indicate that the teeth belonged to two or three representatives of the species Homo erectus, who lived in the Lower Pleistocene (more than 1 Ma years ago). The comparative analysis suggests that these humans belonged to the eastern branch of Homo erectus. This is evidenced by the premolar size ratio (P4 > P3), and by the general similarity to the teeth of Homo erectus pekinensis. Deviations from modern standards are paralleled by other fossils and cannot be used as a reason for suggesting that the Seliungur teeth are not human.
Keywords: Dental anthropology, teeth, human evolution, Paleolithic, Central Asia.