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Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology
of Eurasia

41 (2) 2013




Fortifi cations at Idnakar Settlement: The Findings of Interdisciplinary Research

M.G. Ivanova, I.V. Zhurbin, and A.N. Kirillov.

The study presents the results of multidisciplinary archaeological and geophysical studies of three fortifi cation lines at Idnakar settlement located in the Kama region (9th–13th centuries). Details of the shape and construction of embankments in each fortifi cation line are identifi ed. The gradual expansion of the site via the construction of new fortifi cation lines and their repeated reinforcement testify to the intense development of production capacity, population growth, and the enhancement of the social system. The emergence of fortifi ed settlements in the Kama region alongside those in Volga Bulgaria and Russia represents part of the urbanization process of Eastern Europe.

Keywords: Kama region, Middle Ages, Idnakar settlement, fortifi cation system, interdisciplinary research, resistivity survey, urban development.